ian lawton: mesopotamia

Find out about the wonders of Ancient Mesopotamia uncovered in the last few centuries. From its culture and cities of Eridu, Lagash, Nippur, Uruk/Erech and Shuruppak, excavated by intrepid explorers such as Austen Henry Layard, Henry Rawlinson and Leonard Woolley; through to some of the oldest literary texts in the world, whose early Sumerian and later Akkadian cuneiform was deciphered by scholars such as Edward Hincks, Jules Oppert, Alexander Heidel, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thorkild Jacobsen and Stephanie Dalley. These texts recount the mythological adventures of gods such as An, Enki, Enlil, Ninhursag, Inanna, Ninlil, Ninurta and Marduk, and the epic adventures of its heroes such as Atra-Hasis, Adapa, Etana and Gilgamesh. And find out why the related theories of Zecharia Sitchin, concerning extraterrestrial visitors called the Anunnaki from the planet Nibiru, have few firm foundations.


Link to detailed papers by Michael Heiser of the Department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison concerning the scholastic errors in Sitchin's work

Extract from an email in Dec 2001 from a graduate student of Near Eastern Studies at a US university who has added more details to one of the case studies in my 'What's in a Shem' paper commenting on Sitchin's linguistics


The substance of these papers was originally drafted by IL in 1998, and rearranged and edited for publication here in July 2000

Introduction to Ancient Mesopotamia

Guide to the Mesopotamian Pantheon of Gods

Introduction to Mesopotamian Literary Texts

Guide to the Sumerian Texts

Guide to the Akkadian Texts

A Refutation of the Theories of Zecharia Sitchin:

Introduction to Sitchin's Theories

Sitchin's Scholastic Approach

What's in a Shem?

Sitchin's Cosmology and 'Planet X'

 Sitchin's Pantheon

 Conclusions about Sitchin's Work

 Problems with Interventionism